Neurofeedback White Papers

Neurofeedback White Papers provide the research and findings on the best methods and techniques that we use at the Harmonized Brain Centers. Research is vital to providing the safest and most effective treatments to our clients. Listed below are just a few of the research articles we recommend reading.  At the bottom of the page are additional sites to further your own curiosity and aptitude to learn more about LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback Systems) and other forms of biofeedback and other types of neurofeedback.

Even though some of these neurofeedback white papers are not the lightest of reading, we felt it was important for our clients to have the ability to read and understand some of the research on this fascinating topic of the brain and how LENS helps it to self-regulate.

What Is Neurofeedback Update

(Corydon Hammond, PhD)

click to download PDF


 Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety

(Corydon Hammond, PhD)

click to download PDF

Neurofeedback and TBI a single case study

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Introduction to Neurofeedback

(Jonathon Walker)

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Neurofeedback to Improve Physical Balance, Incontinence and Swallowing

(Corydon Hammond, PhD)

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Combat Related Blast Induced Neurotrauma

(Shirley Jett, PhD, RN, PHN)

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 Taking Care of One’s Brain

(Jonna Brenninkemeijer)

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LENS References 2014


Brink, M. (2012). The Migraine Revolution. Robina, QLD, Australia: Body Mind & Brain.

Carter, J. L. and H. L. Russell (1981). Changes in verbal performance of IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere EEG frequency control training. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4: 66-68.

Carter, J. L. and H. L. Russell (1984). Application of biofeedback relaxation procedures to handicapped children: Final report. Washington, DC, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped.

Carter, J. L. and H. L. Russell (1993). “A pilot investigation of auditory and visual entrainment of brain wave activity in learning disabled boys.” Texas Researcher 4: 65-73.

Cripe, C. (2007). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neuro-developmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy 10(2-3), 79-87.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Nelson, D.V., et al. (1998). Disinhibition in the gamma motorneuron circuitry: a neglected mechanism for understanding myofascial pain syndromes. Applied Physiology & Biofeedback, 23, 43-58.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., et al. (1998). Fibromyalgia: a retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6), 116-127.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E. & Mueller, H.H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: a retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6), 116-127.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., & Mueller, H. (2001). The neural plasticity model of fibromyalgia: theory, assessment, & treatment. Practical Pain Management , Part One, May/June.

Esty, M.L. (2007). Reflections on FMS treatment, research, and neurotherapy: cautionary tales. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 63-68.

Evans, J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics and Clinical Applications. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Medical Press.

Gillham, S., Wold, H., Bayer, Z., et al. (2012). Low energy neurofeedback system (LENS) for stress, anxiety, and cognitive function: an exploratory study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12:1, 145.

Hallowell, E.M., & Jensen, P.S. (2010).  Superparenting for ADD. New York, NY: Ballentine Books. 162-164.

Hammond, D.C. (2005). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9:1, 27-36.

Hammond, D.C., Editor (2007). LENS: the Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghamton, NY: The Hawthorne Medical Press.

Hammond, D.C. (2007). Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury?  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 57-62.

Hammond, D.C. (2008).  Investigations in neuromodulation, neurofeedback and applied neuroscience.  Clinical Corner.  Journal of Neurotherapy. 11:3.

Hammond, D.C. (2010).  LENS neurofeedback treatment of anger: preliminary reports. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 162-169.

Hammond. D.C. (2010). QEEG evaluation of the LENS treatment of TBI. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 170-177.

Hammond, D.C. (2011). What is neurofeedback: an update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15:4, 305-336.

Hammond, D.C. (2011). LENS neurofeedback  treatment with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and neglect. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:1, 47-52.

Hammond, D.C. (2012). Neurofeedback treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:2, 155-163.

Hammond, D.C. & Baehr, E. (2009). Neurofeedback for the treatment of depression: current status of theoretical issues and clinical research. In Budzynski, T.H., Budzynski, H.K., Evans, J.R., and Abaranel, A. (Eds.) Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback: Advanced Theory and Applications. (295-308). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Hammond, D.C., Harper, S.H., O’Brien, J., & Dogris, N. (2010).  Advancements in the LENS treatment protocols. Neuroconnections, 20-23.

Hammond, D.C., S. Stockdale, et al. (2001). Adverse reactions and potential iatrogenic effects in neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy ,4(4), 57-69.

Horowitz, S. (2006). Biofeedback applications: a survey of clinical research. Alternative and Complementary Therapies,12:6, 275-281. doi:10.1089/act.2006.12.275.

Horowitz, S. (2012). Neurofeedback therapy in clinical applications and for cognitive enhancement. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 18(5), 242-247.

Hunt Harper, S. (2009). Low energy neurofeedback system treatment of an acquired brain injury due to sudden cardiac arrest. Biofeedback, 37:3, 100-103.

Hutchison, M. (1994). Mega brain power: transform your life with mind machines and brain nutrients. Hyperion.

Journal of Neurotherapy (2006). Two volume journal set devoted to the topic of the LENS. 10:2-3, 1-104.

Kravitz, H.M., Esty, M.L., Katz, R.S., & Fawcett, J. (2006). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 41-58.

Larsen, S. (2001). The use of flexyx treatment modality with patients with multiple brain and spinal cord injuries. Future Health Winter Brain Conference. Miami, FL.

Larsen, S. (2006). The healing power of neurofeedback: The revolutionary LENS technique for restoring optimal brain function. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Larsen, S. (2009).  The special applicability of the low energy neurofeedback system form of neurofeedback to traumatic brain injury: The Theory, Biofeedback, 37(3), 104-107. doi:

Larsen, S. (2012). The neurofeedback solution: How to treat autism, ADHD, anxiety, brain injury, stroke, PTSD and more. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006). The LENS (low energy neurofeedback system): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78.

Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D.C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006).  The LENS neurofeedback with animals.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104.

Larsen, S., Larsen, R., et al. (2004). The LENS with animals: preliminary observations. International Society for Neuronal Regulation, National Conference. Ft. Lauderdale.

Larsen, S., & Sherlin, L. (2013). Neurofeedback: an emerging technology for treating central nervous system dysregulation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 36:1, 1-200. Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders.

Marcus, L. (2001). EEG Amplitude and Variability Changes Following Low-Intensity Neurofeedback-Based Stimulation for Fibromyalgia. Palo Alto, CA, Western Graduate School of Psychology (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D).

Miller, J.A. (2013). Breaking the bars: Sustainable recovery vs. incarceration (unpublished paper).

Miller, J.A.(2013). Neurotherapy as an adjunct therapy for addiction solutions: Neurological recovery model (unpublished paper).

Miller, J.A. (2013). Neurotherapy for sustainable addiction recovery: An integrated model. Paper presented at the annual International Society of Neurofeedback and Research Conference, Dallas, TX.

Miller, J.A. (2014). Low energy neurofeedback: A primary key to prescription medication dependence recovery (unpublished paper).

Miller, J.A. (2014). Neurotherapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children (unpublished paper).

Miller, J.A. (2014). LENS training for children with neurological dysfunction (unpublished paper).

Miller, J.A. (2014). Nine functions of the prefrontal cortex: LENS training – dysfunctional to functional (unpublished paper).

Mueller, H.H., Donaldson, C.C.S., et al. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical out-comes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7): 933-952.

Nelson, D.V., Bennett, R. M., Barkhuizen, A., Sexton, G.J., Jones, K.D., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L. and Donaldson, C.C.S. (2010), Neurotherapy of Fibromyalgia? Pain Medicine, 11: 912–919. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00862.x

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2009). Neurotherapy for pain in veterans with trauma spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain, 10:4, Supplement, S18.

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2012). Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24:2, 237-240.

Ochs, L. (1993a).  New light on lights, sound, and the brain.  Megabrain Reports: Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57(7), 933-952.

Ochs, L. (1993b). New light on lights, sound, and the brain. Megabrain Reports: Journal of Mind Technology 2: 48-52.

Ochs, L. (1996). Thoughts about EEG-Driven stimulation after three years of its uses: Ramifications for concepts of pathology, recovery, and brain function. Unpublished manuscript.

Ochs, L. (2007a). Comment on the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: A randomized controlled clinical trial, or how to go crazy over nearly nothing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 59-61.

Ochs, L. (2007b). The low energy neurofeedback system (LENS): theory, background and introduction. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 5-37.

Ochs, L. (2007c). Comment on neurofeedback overtraining and the vulnerable patient.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 67-71.

Ochs, L. (2010a). Underlying treatment Issues in neurofeedback as exemplified by treatment of seizure disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, Spring, 29-33.

Ochs, L. (2010b). Working with latent and actual seizures. Journal of Neurotherapy, Summer. 30-32.

Ochs, L. (2014). A look at today’s LENS. NeuroConnections, Fall. (pending).

Ochs, L. & Berman, M. (1997). EDS: Background and operation. EEG-driven pico-photic stimulation. Walnut Creek, CA: Flexyx, LLC.

Robbins, J. (2008). Biology, Psychology, the Brain, and Quantum Physics: Neuroscience, Epigenetics, Energy Psychology, Quantum Physics, Eudaimonics, Buddhism, and the Brain. Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality (pp. 243-254). Boulder, CO: Sounds True.

Robbins, J. (updated 2013).  A symphony in the brain: The evolution of the new brain wave biofeedback. New York, NY: Grove Press.

Schoenberger, N.E., Shiflett, S.C., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L., &  Matheis, R.J. (2001).  Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.

Stoler, D.R. & Hill, B.A. (2013). Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. New York, NY: Penguin Random House.

White, Christine (2008). Restoring optimal brain function helps many health problems: ADD, autism, depression, fibromyalgia, anxiety, PTSD, learning disorders, strokes, Parkinson’s disease, multiple schlerosis. Townsend Letter, The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, April 2008.

St. Clair, M., (2008).  LENS Case Study: Traumatic Brain Injury From AVM (Arterial Venous Malformation). Neuroconnections, 7(29-30).